More complex geometries and near-net-shape production are making necessary for cold-forging lubricants to withstand higher mechanical and thermal stresses, to reduce friction and prolong tool life. The tribological conditions in cold forging are extremely severe. Interface tool temperatures up to several hundred degrees combine with surface expansion factors up to 3,000%. Thus, the lubricants are subjected to extreme conditions, and failure to withstand those conditions will promote defects ...

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